Prevented entry of diseases like RHD in 2001, Avian
Influenza H7N7 in smuggled pigeons in 2001 and MCF and
BVDV (Exotic strain) in cattle imported from Australia
that were detected and checked at point of entry in the
country in year 2003.
when bird flu (Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza entered
in India) caused unprecedented mortality in poultry in
Maharashtra and then started spreading in Gujarat and
Madhya Pradesh, one cannot imagine what would have
happened if the disease was not controlled quickly. The
catastrophe could be averted only after the quick
diagnosis by NIHSAD (formerly HSADL).
During the last 15 years of functioning NIHSAD has
confirmed the existence of Avian influenza, Swine
Influenza, Bovine immunodeficiency virus, Bovine virus
diarrhea, Border disease, Malignant catarrhal fever,
Porcine Circovirus, Porcine Parvovirus, Porcine Reproductive
and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) and Crimean
Congo Hemorrhagic Fever.
Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the viruses isolated
from poultry in India belonged to two major genetic
clades; clade 2.2 (isolated during 2006 to 2010) and clade 22.214.171.124(isolated
during 2011-13). Within clade 2.2, the H5N1 viruses
formed four distinct groups; 2006 and 2007 isolates
formed two independent groups. The 2006 Indian isolates
shared grouping with 2006 swan isolates from Iran and
Italy. The 2007 isolates of Manipur grouped closely with
a guinea fowl isolate from China. During 2008-2010, two
independent introductions of the H5N1 virus have been
detected; one from Bangladesh probably through
land-based poultry and another thorough migratory bird.
The viruses isolated during 2011- 2013 from India
belonged to clade 126.96.36.199, and grouped closely with
isolates from Bangladesh and Bhutan. All the viruses
were highly pathogenic to poultry; However, species
specific variation within H5N1 viruses of both the
clades have been found in mice and ducks.
The H5N1 HPAI virus was isolated from other species
including ducks [West Bengal and Assam (2008), Tripura
(2008 and 2011), Odisha (2012)], Crows [Jharkhand
(2011), Bihar (2012), Maharashtra (2012), Odisha (2012,
2014); Assam (2008)], Goose [Tripura (2008)] and Turkeys
Monoclonal antibodies against NS1and NP protein of avian
influenza has been developed and characterized that are
most useful for diagnostic purpose.
Designing and validation of siRNAs (small interfering
RNAs) against PB2, PB1, PA, NP and M2 gene inhibiting
H5N1 virus (This research is helpful for deciding
The study on
“Environmental persistence of AI virus” gave an insight
into the various factors involved in the persistence of
avian influenza virus in feces, water and environment,
on the basis of which recommendations have been framed
regarding the temperature conditions for storage and
dispatch of avian influenza samples and control of avian
influenza infection in the poultry farms and
During 2003, H9N2 strains of Avian Influenza (low
pathogenic-LPAI) were diagnosed in poultry from
outbreaks in northern India. Since then, several H9N2
isolations have proved that this LPAIV is widespread in
India. Low pathogenic H9N2 virus was demonstrated in the
brain of chicken naturally infected with the virus for
the first time.
Surveillance of H1N1 influenza virus (swine flu) has
indicated its presence in pig population in India. Two
viruses (H1N1) have been isolated and characterized.
Presently, the development of a DIVA-marker
(Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals)
vaccine against Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza
(Lab-generated H5N2) ready for validation) is in
progress under the National Fellow project at NIHSAD.
outbreak, as an emergency measure, AIV vaccine was
developed and tested. However, Govt of India later
decided not to adopt vaccination policy in the country.
Developed Mab based ELISA for diagnosis of BVDV and BIV, and
recombinant nucleocapsid protein based indirect ELISA
diagnosis of PRRS.
BVDV-1b was isolated from cattle for the first time in
India. Phylogenetic analysis established prevalence of
BVDV 1b & 1c subtype in Indian buffalo and close
relationship between cattle and buffalo BVDV-1b viruses.
Genetic and antigenic characterization demonstrated the
first occurrence of BVDV-2 subtype b in sheep providing
the evidence that this subtype can also occur in species
other than cattle.
For the first time in the world BVDV-1 was identified in
yaks of Himalayan region.
Recent surveillance of samples from Jammu area confirmed
Border disease infection in small ruminants, first time
reported from India.
A TaqMan based one-step real time RT-PCR was developed and validated for simultaneous detection and genetic typing of BVDV-1, BVDV-2 and BDV in clinical samples.
Detection of CpHV in ruminant population of India for the first time.
BVDV-3 (HoBi-like) was identified in Indian cattle for the first time and the phylogenetic analysis revealed circulation of two novel and highly divergent lineages of BVDV-3 viruses in India.